Acid can wear away tooth surfaces. Both the hard outer covering of the tooth called enamel and the softer dentine that lies underneath the enamel, can be attacked by acids in your mouth. Dentine, which can be exposed when gums recede, is softer than enamel and can be worn away faster. Erosion reduces the size of the teeth and in severe cases leads to total tooth destruction.
Acid erosion is just one form of tooth wear. Things such as tooth grinding (bruxism) can cause wear by ‘attrition’, whereas, over enthusiastic toothbrushing can cause wear by ‘abrasion’. Toothbrush abrasion is often noticed around the gum margins which can be sensitive). Often damage to tooth surfaces is the result of a combination of these things – erosion, attrition and abrasion.
Generally the term tooth wear is used to describe tooth surface loss due to one or a combination of attrition, abrasion and erosion. The result of severe tooth wear can be poor appearance of teeth and sensitivity. It is important that the cause of tooth wear is identified and steps taken to prevent and manage wear. Your dentist will assess tooth wear during your oral health assessment and review appointments.
Acids in the mouth can be the result of external acids being placed in the mouth e.g. fruit juice and fizzy drinks, or internal acids from the stomach e.g. gastric reflux. Whatever the source, acid erosion will soften tooth surfaces and can lead to sensitivity and tooth surface loss, which can impact your quality of life.
If you grind your teeth and have gastric reflux, tooth wear will be greater. Acid softens the tooth surfaces, making them easier to wear down. If you brush your teeth after an acid attack e.g vomiting, then the acid softened tooth surfaces can be worn more rapidly by toothbrush bristles, especially if using an abrasive toothpaste or tooth powder and a hard-bristled toothbrush. DO NOT brush your teeth after vomiting or gastric reflux as you increase your risk of tooth wear.
Tooth wear is a relatively slow process and to some extent is a natural part of ageing. Your dental team will monitor any wear in your mouth and discuss any concerns. Always tell your dental team if you suffer from frequent vomiting or gastric reflux and talk to them about what can be done to prevent or limit any potential damage from acid erosion.
The impact of acids on your mouth depends on the pH (expresses the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale on which 7 is neutral, lower values are more acid and higher values more alkaline), the titratable acidity (the measure of the amount of acid present in a solution), and the chemical composition of the acid. Enamel will start to demineralise with a pH of 5.5 and dentine at 6.4. The table below gives you an idea of the acidity of some common food and drinks. Your risk of suffering from acid erosion related tooth wear is dependent on a number of factors – which may change throughout life. These include the quality and quantity of saliva. The more often and longer acids are in the mouth the more likely you are to suffer from acid erosion. An early indication of acid erosion can be tooth sensitivity. If you are concerned talk to your dental team or Growing Smiles Oral Health Coach.
Growing Smiles top tips for controlling acid erosion.
- Eat a healthy diet at regular mealtimes (see Eatwell guide below https://www.nutrition.org.uk/healthyliving/healthydiet/eatwell.html) rather than ‘grazing’ throughout the day.
- Use low abrasive, high fluoride toothpaste (1450ppm) at night time and in the morning. Spit out after brushing but don’t rinse. See table of relative dentine abrasion (RDA) of toothpastes here.
- Brush before rather than after breakfast. Don’t brush immediately after acidic food/drink or after vomiting. Leave 45-60 minutes.
- Keep acidic food and drinks to mealtimes.
- Chew sugar free gum after eating and drinking.
- Use an alcohol-free fluoride mouth rinse at a different time to brushing.
- If you suffer from a medical condition that causes acid reflux e.g. gastric reflux, eating disorder etc speak to your Doctor.
- Check any medications taken regularly are acid free e.g vitamin C , aspirin, iron preparations.
- Use products that aid remineralisation to harden and protect tooth surfaces.
NB. Any medication that has a side effect of dry mouth can impact your risk of acid erosion and tooth surface loss. Some medications are acidic e.g. Vitamin C, Aspirin and some Iron preparations. Speak to your Doctor or Dentist.
Sources of acid that may lead to erosive tooth wear (From Delivering Better Oral Health 2021)
Extrinsic sources of acid
Drinks • carbonated drinks (except non-flavoured sparkling water)
• wine (white and red)
• alcopops and designer drinks
• fortified wines with fruity flavours
• energy drinks
• drinks containing citric acid, including natural fruit juices – such as orange, grapefruit, lemon, blackcurrant
• fruit teas (excluding non-fruit flavoured herbal teas such as camomile or peppermint)
• sports drinks
Foods • vinegar-based foods, including pickles
• fruit-based sauces
Confectionary • acidic sweets, for example sour jelly-based sweets, acid drops, sherbet lemons, and so on
• fruit-based sugar and certain sugar free sweets
Fruit (healthy acids) • acidic fresh fruit, particularly in high quantities
• lemons, oranges and grapefruit are the most acidic fruit acids (most fruits may be erosive, other than banana and avocado)
Medication • chewable vitamin C tablets
• asthmatic inhalers
• some iron preparations
Reduced saliva Dry mouth • conditions which reduce salivary flow including intense sport and anxiety
• saliva reducing medications
Chemicals • tooth whitening materials
Other – rare sources • occupational exposure to acid, for example mists in the workplace air, wine tasters
Intrinsic sources of acid (Chemical wear)
Eating disorders including bulimia nervosa
Gastric acid reflux including GORD (gastro oesophageal reflux disease) Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR)
Sources of mechanical tooth wear (from Delivering Better Oral Health 2021)
Tooth brushing – aggressive/inappropriate technique